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Selected Publications by Topic

(Updated May 10, 2022)


Reading, Writing, and Content Area


Gersten, R., Haymond, K., Newman-Gonchar, R., Dimino, J., & Jayanthi, M. (2020). Meta-analysis of the impact of reading interventions for students in the primary grades. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 13(2), 401–427.

Gersten, R., Jayanthi, M., & Dimino, J. (2017). Too much, too soon? A commentary on what the national RtI evaluation left unanswered and what reading intervention research tells us. Exceptional Children, 83(3), 244–254.

Jayanthi, M., Dimino, J., Gersten, R., Taylor, M. J., Haymond, K., Smolkowski, K., & Newman-Gonchar, R. (2017). The impact of teacher study groups in vocabulary on teaching practice, teacher knowledge, and student vocabulary knowledge: A large-scale replication study. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 11(1), 83–108.

Gersten, R., Newman-Gonchar, R. A., Haymond, K. S., & Dimino, J. (2017). What is the evidence base to support reading interventions for improving student outcomes in grades 1–3? (REL 2017–271). U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast.

Ciullo, S., & Dimino, J. A. (2017). The strategic use of scaffolded instruction in social studies interventions for students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 32(3), 155–165.

Foorman, B., Beyler, N., Borradaile, K., Coyne, M., Denton, C. A., Dimino, J., Furgeson, J., Hayes, L., Henke, J., Justice, L., Keating, B., Lewis, W., Sattar, S., Streke, A., Wagner, R., & Wissel, S. (2016). Foundational skills to support reading for understanding in kindergarten through 3rd grade (NCEE 2016-4008). National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (NCEE), Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

Dimino, J.A., Taylor, M., & Morris, J. (2015). Professional learning communities facilitator’s guide for the What Works Clearinghouse practice guide: Teaching academic content and literacy to English learners in elementary and middle grades (REL 2015-105). U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest.

Haager, D., Dimino, J., & Windmueller, M. (2014). Interventions for reading success (2nd ed.). Brookes Publishing.

McInerney, M., Zumeta, R. O., Gandhi, A. G., & Gersten, R. (2014). Building and sustaining complex systems: Addressing common challenges to implementing intensive intervention. Teaching Exceptional Children, 46(4), 54–63.


James-Burdumy, S., Deke, J., Gersten, R., Lugo-Gil, J., Newman-Gonchar, R., Dimino, J., & Haymond, K., & Liu, A. Y. H. (2012). Effectiveness of four supplemental reading comprehension interventions. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 5(4), 345–383.


Hitchcock, J. H., Kurki, A., Wilkins, C., Dimino, J., & Gersten, R. (2009). Evaluating the collaborative strategic reading intervention: An overview of randomized controlled trial options. Practical Assessment Research & Evaluation, 14(2), 1–11.


Gersten, R., Baker, S., Smith-Johnson, J., & Dimino, J.  (2006). Eyes on the Prize: Teaching complex historical content to middle school students with learning disabilities, Exceptional Children, 72(3), 264–280.


Gersten, R., & Dimino, J. A. (2006). RTI (Response to Intervention): Rethinking special education for students with reading difficulties (yet again). Reading Research Quarterly, 41(1), 99–108.

Skindrud, K., & Gersten, R. (2006). An evaluation of two contrasting approaches for improving reading achievement in a large urban district. The Elementary School Journal, 106(5), 389–407.


Baker, S., Gersten, R., & Graham, S. (2003). Teaching expressive writing to students with learning disabilities: Research-based applications and examples. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(2), 109–123.


Baker, S. K., Gersten, R., & Scanlon, D. (2002). Procedural facilitators and cognitive strategies: Tools for unraveling the mysteries of comprehension and the writing process, and for providing meaningful access to the general curriculum. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 17(1), 65–77.


Gersten, R., & Baker, S. (2001). Teaching expressive writing to students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis. The Elementary School Journal, 101(3), 251–272.


Gersten, R., Fuchs, L. S., Williams, J. P., & Baker, S. (2001). Teaching reading comprehension strategies to students with learning disabilities: A review of research. Review of Educational Research, 71(2), 279–320.


Klingner, J. K., Vaughn, S., Dimino, J. A., Bryant, D. P., & Schumm, J. S. (2001). Collaborative strategic reading: Strategies for improving comprehension. Sopris West.


Vaughn, S., Gersten, R., & Chard, D. (2000). The underlying message in LD intervention research: Findings from research syntheses. Exceptional Children, 67(1), 99–114.


Gersten, R. (1998). Recent advances in instructional research for students with learning disabilities: An overview. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 13(3), 162–170.


Gersten, R., & Baker, S.  (1998). Real world use of scientific concepts: Integrating situated cognition with explicit instruction. Exceptional Children, 65(1), 23–35.


Dimino, J., Taylor, R., & Gersten, R. (1995). Synthesis of the research on story grammar as a means to increase comprehension. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 11(1), 53–72. 


Dimino, J., Gersten, R., Carnine, D., & Blake, G. (1990). Story grammar: An approach for promoting at-risk secondary students' comprehension of literature. The Elementary School Journal, 91(1), 19–32.


Dimino, J., & Kolar, C. (1990). Using frames to improve at risk students' comprehension in the content areas. In G. Tindal (Ed.) Proceedings from the Oregon conference. Eugene, OR: The University of Oregon.


Gersten, R., & Dimino, J. (1990). Reading instruction for at-risk students: Implications of current research, Oregon School Study Council, 33(5), 1–30.


Gurney, D., Gersten, R., Dimino, J., & Carnine, D. (1990). Story grammar: Effective literature instruction for high school students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23(6), 335–342, 348.





Jayanthi, M., Gersten, R., Schumacher, R. F., Dimino, J., Smolkowski, K., & Spallone, S. (2021). Improving struggling fifth-grade students’ understanding of fractions: A randomized controlled trial of an intervention that stresses both concepts and procedures. Exceptional Children, 88(1), 81–100.

Wang, A. Y., Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Gilbert, J. K., Krowka, S., & Abramson, R. (2019). Embedding self-regulation instruction within fractions intervention for third graders with mathematics difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 52(4), 337–348.

Schumacher, R. F., Jayanthi, M., Gersten, R., Dimino, J., Spallone, S., & Haymond, K. S. (2018). Using the number line to promote understanding of fractions for struggling fifth graders: A formative pilot study. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 33(4), 192–206.

Jayanthi, M., Gersten, R., Taylor, M. J., Smolkowski, K., & Dimino, J. (2017). Impact of the Developing Mathematical Ideas professional development program on grade 4 students’ and teachers’ understanding of fractions (REL 2017–256). U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast.


Schumacher, R. F., Zumeta Edmonds, R. O., & Arden, S. V. (2017). Examining implementation of intensive intervention in mathematics. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 32(3), 189–199. doi:10.1111/ldrp.12141


Schumacher, R. F. & Malone, A. S. (2017). Error patterns with fraction calculations at fourth grade as a function of students’ mathematics achievement status. The Elementary School Journal, 118(1), 105–127. doi:10.1086/692914


Gersten, R., Schumacher, R. F., & Jordan, N. C. (2016). Life on the number line: Routes to understanding fraction magnitude for students with difficulties learning mathematics. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 50(6), 655–657. doi:10.1177/0022219416662625

Fuchs, L. S., Malone, A., Schumacher, R. F., Namkung, J., Hamlett, C. L., Jordan, N. C., Siegler, R. S., Gersten, R., & Changas, P. (2015). Supported self-explaining during fraction intervention. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(4), 493–508. doi:10.1037/edu0000073


Gersten, R., Rolfhus, E., Clarke, B., Decker, L., Wilkins, C., & Dimino, J. (2015). Focused small-group intervention for first graders with limited number knowledge: Large-scale replication of a randomized controlled trial. American Educational Research Journal, 52(3), 516–546.

Hansen, N., Jordan, N. C., Fernandez, E., Siegler, R. S., Fuchs, L., Gersten, R., &  Micklos, D. (2015). General and math-specific predictors of sixth-graders’ knowledge of fractions. Cognitive Development, 35, 34–49. doi:10.1016/j.cogdev.2015.02.001

Bailey, D. H., Zhou, X., Zhang Y., Cui, J., Fuchs, L. S., Jordan, N. C., Gersten, R., & Siegler, R. S. (2015) Development of fraction concepts and procedures in U.S. and Chinese children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 129, 68–83. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2014.08.006

Fuchs, L., Fuchs, D., Compton, D., Wehby, J., Schumacher, R., Gersten, R., & Jordan, N. (2015). Inclusion versus specialized intervention for very low-performing students: What does access mean in an era of academic challenge? Exceptional Children, 81(2), 134-157. doi:10.1177/0014402914551743

Vukovic, R. K., Fuchs, L. S., Geary, D. C., Jordan, N. C., Gersten, R., & Siegler, R. S. (2014). Sources of individual differences in children's understanding of fractions. Child Development, 85(4), 1461–1476. doi:10.1111/cdev.12218

Siegler, R. S., Pyke, A.A., Jordan, N., Fuchs, L., & Gersten, R. (2013). Developmental and individual differences in understanding of fractions. Developmental Psychology, 49(10), 1994–2004. doi:10.1037/a0031200


Fuchs, L. S., Schumacher, R. F., Long, J., Namkung, J., Hamlett, C. L., Cirino, P. T., Jordan N. C., Siegler, R., Gersten R., & Changas, P. (2013). Improving at-risk learners' understanding of fractions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105, 683-700. doi: 10.1037/a0032446.


Jordan, N. C., Hansen, N., Fuchs, L., Siegler, R., Gersten, R., & Micklos, D. (2013). Developmental predictors of fractional concepts and procedures. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116(1), 45-58. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2013.02.001


Gersten, R., Clarke, B., Jordan, N., Newman-Gonchar, R., Haymond, K., & Wilkins, C. (2012). Universal screening in mathematics for the primary grades: Beginnings of a research base. Exceptional Children, 78(4), 423–445. doi:10.1177/001440291207800403

Bryant, D. P., Bryant, B. R., Roberts, G., Vaughn, S., Pfannenstiel, K. H., Porterfield, J., & Gersten, R. (2011). Early numeracy intervention program for first-grade students with mathematics difficulties. Exceptional Children, 78(1), 7–23. doi:10.1177/001440291107800101


Gersten, R., Chard, D., Jayanthi, M., Baker, S., Morphy, P., & Flojo, J. (2009). Mathematics instruction for students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis of instructional components. Review of Educational Research, 79(3), 1202–1242. doi:10.3102/0034654309334431


Bryant, D. P., Bryant, B. R., Gersten, R., Scammacca, N., & Chavez, M. (2008). Mathematics intervention for first and second grade students with mathematics difficulties: The effects of tier 2 intervention delivered as booster lessons. Remedial and Special Education, 29(1), 20-32. doi:10.1177/0741932507309712

Bryant, D. P., Bryant, B. R., Gersten, R., Scammacca, N., Funk, C., Winter, A., Shih, M., & Pool, C. (2008). The effects of tier 2 intervention on the mathematics performance of first-grade students who are at risk for mathematics difficulties. Learning Disability Quarterly, 31(2), 47-64. Retrieved from


Gersten, R., & Jordan, N.  (2005).  Early screening and intervention in mathematics difficulties: The need for action. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 291-292.


Gersten, R., Jordan, N., & Flojo, J.  (2005).  Early identification and interventions for
students with mathematics difficulties,
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 293-304.


Baker, S., Gersten, R., Dimino, J. & Griffiths, R. (2004). The sustained use of research-based instructional practice: A case study of peer-assisted learning strategies in mathematics. Remedial and Special Education, 25, 5-24.


Baker, S., Gersten, R., & Lee, D.S. (2002). A synthesis of empirical research on teaching
mathematics to low-achieving students.
Elementary School Journal, 10, 51-73.


Carnine, D. & Gersten, R. (2000). The nature and role of research in improving achievement in mathematics. Journal for Research and Mathematics Education, 31, 138-143.


Gersten, R., & Chard, D. (1999).  Number sense: Rethinking mathematics instruction for students with mathematical disabilities. Journal of Special Education, 33, 19-28.


Gersten, R., & Kelly, B. (1992).  Coaching secondary special education teachers in implementation of an innovative videodisc mathematics curriculum.  Remedial and Special Education, 13, 40-51.


English Language Learners: Best Practice


Richards-Tutor, C., Baker, D. L., Gersten, R., Baker, S. K., & Smith, J. M. (2015). The effectiveness of reading interventions for English learners: A research synthesis. Exceptional Children, 82(2),144–169. doi:10.1177/0014402915585483


Gage, N., Gersten, R., Sugai, G., & Newman-Gonchar, R. (2013). Disproportionality of English learners with emotional and/or behavioral disorders: A comparative meta-analysis with English learners with learning disabilities. Behavioral Disorders, 38(3), 123-136.


Baker, S., Gersten R., Haager, D., & Dingle, M. (2006).  Teaching practice and the reading growth of first-grade English learners: Validation of an Observation Instrument.  Elementary School Journal, 107(2), 199-221.


Gersten, R., Baker, S., Haager, D., & Graves, A.  (2005).  Exploring the role of
teacher quality in predicting reading outcomes for first grade English learners: An observational study. 
Remedial and Special Education, 26, 197-206.


Graves, A., Gersten, R., & Haager, D., (2004).  Literacy instruction in multiple language
first grade classrooms: Linking student outcomes to observed instructional practice. 
Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 19, 262-272.


Gersten, R., & Geva, E. (2003). Teaching reading to early language learners. Educational Leadership, 60, 44-49.


Gersten, R., & Baker, S. (2000). What we know about effective instructional practices for English-language learners. Exceptional Children, 66,454-470.


Gersten, R. (1999). The changing face of bilingual education.  Educational Leadership, 56, 41-45. (Reprinted in Multicultural Education. Guilford, CT: Dushkin/McGraw-Hill.)


Gersten, R. (1999). Lost opportunities: Challenges confronting four teachers of English-language learners. Elementary School Journal, 100, 37-56.


Jimenez, R. & Gersten, R. (1999). Lessons and dilemmas derived from the literacy instruction of two Latina/o teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 36,265-301.


Gersten, R. (1996). The double demands of teaching English language learners. Educational Leadership, 53, 18-22.


Gersten, R. (1996).  Literacy instruction for language-minority students: The transition years.  Elementary School Journal, 96, 227-244.


Gersten, R., & Woodward, J. (1995).  A longitudinal study of transitional and immersion bilingual education programs in one district.  Elementary School Journal, 95, 223-240.


Gersten, R., & Jimenez, R. (1994). A delicate balance: Enhancing literacy instruction for students of English as a second language.  The Reading Teacher, 47, 438-449.


Gersten, R., & Woodward, J. (1994).  The language minority student and special education: Issues, themes and paradoxes.  Exceptional Children, 60, 310-322. [Reprinted in D. Podell (Ed.) Perspectives: Educating exceptional learners.]


Professional Development


Dimino, J.A., Taylor, M.J., and GErsten, R. (2011). Improving vocabulary instruction through Teacher Study Groups.  Better.  Retried from


Gersten, R., Dimino, J., Jayanthi, M., Kim, J., & Santoro L. (2010). Teacher study group: Impact of the professional development model on reading instruction and student outcomes in first grade classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 47(3), 694–739. doi:10.3102/0002831209361208


Gersten, R., & Dimino, J. A. (2001). The realities of translating research into classroom practice. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 16, 120-130.


Gersten, R., Keating, T., Yovanoff, P., & Harniss, M. K. (2001). Working in special education: Factors that enhance special educators’ intent to stay. Exceptional Children, 67, 549-567.


Gersten, R., Chard, D., & Baker, S. (2000). Factors that enhance sustained use of research-based instructional practices: A historical perspective on relevant research. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33, 445-457.


Gersten, R. (1998). Recent advances in instructional research for students with learning disabilities: An overview.  Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 13, 162-170.


Marks, S. U. & Gersten, R. (1998). Engagement and disengagement between special and general educators: An application of Miles and Huberman's cross-case analysis. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 21, 34-56.


Gersten, R., Vaughn, S., Deshler, D., & Schiller, E. (1997). What we know about using research findings: Implications for improving special education practice. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30, 466-476.


Gersten, R., Morvant, M., & Brengelman, S. (1995). Close to the classroom is close to the bone: Coaching as a means to translate research into classroom practice.  Exceptional Children, 62, 52-66.


Gersten, R., & Dimino, J. (1993). Visions and revisions: A special education perspective on the whole language controversy.  Remedial and Special Education, 14, 5-13.


Gersten, R., Woodward, J., & Morvant, M. (1992). Refining the working knowledge ofexperienced teachers.  Educational Leadership, 49, 34-39.


Gersten, R., Darch, C., Davis, G., & George, N. (1991). Apprenticeship and intensive training of consulting teachers: A naturalistic study.  Exceptional Children, 57, 226-237.


Gersten, R. (1990). Enemies Real and imagined: Implications of Teachers' Thinking about Instruction for collaboration between special and general education. Remedial and Special Education, 11, 50-53.



Research Methodology


Gersten, R., Jayanthi, M., Santoro, L., & Newman-Gonchar, R. (2017). Designing rigorous group studies in special education: Standards and quality indicators for contemporary group design research. In J. Kauffman and D. Hallahan (Eds.), Handbook of Special Education. Madison Avenue, NY: Routledge.

Gersten, R., Fuchs, L.S., Compton, D., Coyne, M., Greenwood, C., & Innocenti, M. (2005). Quality indicators for group experimental and quasi-experimental research in special education. Exceptional Children, 71, 149-164.

Gersten, R., Baker, S., Smith-Johnson, J., Flojo, J., & Hagan-Burke, S.  (2004).  A tale of two decades: trends in support for federally funded experimental research in special education. 
Exceptional Children, 70, 323-332.


Gersten, R. (2001). Sorting out the roles of research in the improvement of practice. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice,16, 45-50.


Gersten, R., & Vaughn, S. (2001). Meta-analyses in learning disabilities: Introduction to the special issue. Elementary School Journal, 101, 251-272.


Gersten, R., Baker, S., & Lloyd, J.W. (2000). Designing high quality research in special education: Group experimental design. Journal of Special Education, 34, 2-18.


Gersten, R., & Brengelman, S. (1996).  The quest to translate research into classroom practice: The current knowledge base. Remedial and Special Education, 96, 228-244.




Rumberger, R., Addis, H., Allensworth, E., Balfanz, R., Bruch, J., Dillon, E., Duardo, D., Dynarski, M., Furgeson, J., Jayanthi, M., Newman-Gonchar, R., Place, K., & Tuttle, C. (2017). Preventing drop- out in secondary schools (NCEE 2017-4028). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (NCEE), Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

Ward, B., & Gersten, R. (2013). A randomized evaluation of the Safe and Civil Schools model for positive behavioral interventions and supports at elementary schools in a large urban school district. School Psychology Review, 42(3), 317-333.


Brownell, M. T., Bishop, A. G., Gersten, R., Klingner, J. K., Penfield, R., Dimino, J., Haager, D., Menon, S., & Sindelar, P. T. (2009). The role of domain expertise in beginning special education teacher quality. Exceptional Children, 75(4), 391-411.


Gersten, R., & Edyburn, D. (2007). Enhancing the evidence base of special education technology research: Defining special education technology research quality indicators. Journal of Special Education Technology, 22(3), 3-18.


Gersten, R., & Okolo, C. M. (2007). Teaching history- in all its splendid messiness- to students with LD: Contemporary research. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40(2), 98-99. doi:10.1177/00222194070400021001


Harniss, M. K., Caros, J., & Gersten, R. (2007). Impact of the design of U.S. history textbooks on content acquisition and academic engagement of special education students: An experimental investigation. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40(2), 100-110. doi:10.1177/00222194070400020101


Espin, C., Cevasco, J., van den Broek, P., Baker, S., & Gersten, R. (2007). History as narrative: The nature and quality of historical understanding for students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40(2), 174-182. doi:10.1177/00222194070400020801

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