Selected Publications by Topic

(Updated October 19, 2017)


Reading, Writing, and Content Area


Dimino, J.A., Taylor, M., & Morris, J. (2015). Professional learning communities facilitator’s guide for the What Works Clearinghouse practice guide: Teaching academic content and literacy to English learners in elementary and middle grades (REL 2015-105) Washington, DC: US Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest. Retrieved from

Haager, D., Dimino, J., & Windmueller, M. (2014). Interventions for Reading Success (2nd ed.).Baltimore, MD:  Brookes Publishing.

McInerney, M., Zumeta, R. O., Gandhi, A. G., & Gersten, R. (2014). Building and sustaining complex systems: Addressing common challenges to implementing intensive intervention. Teaching Exceptional Children, 46(4), 1-10. doi:10.1177/0040059914523763.


James-Burdumy, S., Deke, J., Gersten, R., Lugo-Gil, J., Newman-Gonchar, R., Dimino, J., & Haymond, K., & Liu, A. Y. H. (2012). Effectiveness of four supplemental reading comprehension interventions. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 5(4), 345-383. doi:10.1080/19345747.2012.698374


Hitchcock, J.H., Kurki, A., Wilkins, C., Dimino, J., & Gersten, R. (2009). Evaluating the collaborative strategic reading intervention: An overview of randomized controlled trial options. Practical Assessment Research & Evaluation, 14(2). Available online:


Gersten, R., Baker, S., Smith-Johnson, J., & Dimino, J.  (2006).  Eyes on the Prize: Teaching complex historical content to middle school students with learning disabilities, Exceptional Children, 72, 264-280


Gersten, R., & Dimino, J. (2006). RTI (Response to Intervention): Rethinking special education for students with reading difficulties (yet again). Reading Research Quarterly, 41, 99-108.


Skindrud, K., & Gersten, R.  (2006).  An independent evaluation of two prominent reading reforms in the Sacramento city schools: Academic and special education outcomes,  Elementary School Journal, 106(5), 389-408.


Baker, S., Gersten, R., & Graham, S. (2003). Teaching expressive writing to students with learning disabilities: Research-based applications and examples. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36, 109-123.


Baker, S., Gersten, R., & Scanlon, D. (2002). Procedural facilitators and cognitive strategies: Tools for unraveling the mysteries of comprehension and the writing process, and for providing meaningful access to the general curriculum. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 17, 65-77.


Gersten, R., & Baker, S. (2001). Teaching expressive writing to students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis.

Elementary School Journal, 101, 251-272.


Gersten, R., Fuchs, L., Williams, J., & Baker, S. (2001). Teaching reading comprehension strategies to students with learning disabilities: A review of research. Review of Educational Research, 71, 279-320.


Klingner, J. K., Vaughn, S., Dimino, J. A., Bryant, D. P., & Schumm, J. S. (2001). Collaborative strategic reading:  Strategies for improving comprehension. Longmont, CO:  Sopris West.


Vaughn, S. & Gersten, R. & Chard, D. (2000). A search for the underlying message in the intervention research on learning disabilities. Exceptional Children. 67, 99-114.


Gersten, R. (1998).  Recent advances in instructional research for students with learning disabilities: An overview.  Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 13, 162-170.


Gersten, R., & Baker, S.  (1998). Real world use of scientific concepts: Integrating situated cognition with explicit instruction. Exceptional Children, 65, 23-35.


Dimino, J., Taylor, R. & Gersten, R. (1995).  Synthesis of the research on story grammar as a means to increase comprehension.  Reading and Writing Quarterly, 11, 53-72. 


Dimino, J., Gersten, R., Carnine, D., & Blake, G. (1990).  Story grammar: An approach for promoting at-risk secondary students' comprehension of literature.  Elementary School Journal, 91, 19-32.


Dimino, J. A. & Kolar, C. (1990). Using frames to improve at risk students' comprehension in the content areas. In G. Tindal (Ed.) Proceedings from the Oregon conference. Eugene, OR:  The University of Oregon. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 331 015)


Gersten, R., & Dimino, J. A. (1990). Reading instruction for at-risk students: Implications of current research, Oregon School Study Council, 33, 1-30.


Gurney, D., Gersten, R., Dimino, J., & Carnine, D. (1990).  Story grammar: Effective literature instruction for high school students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 335-342.





Fuchs, L. S., Malone, A., Schumacher, R. F., Namkung, J., Hamlett, C. L., Jordan, N. C., Siegler, R. S., Gersten, R., & Changas, P. (2015). Supported self-explaining during fraction intervention. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(4), 493–508. doi:10.1037/edu0000073


Gersten, R., Rolfhus, E., Clarke, B., Decker, L., Wilkins, C., & Dimino, J. (2015). Focused small-group intervention for first graders with limited number knowledge: Large-scale replication of a randomized controlled trial. American Educational Research Journal. Advance online publication. doi:10.3102/0002831214565787

Hansen, N., Jordan, N. C., Fernandez, E., Siegler, R. S., Fuchs, L., Gersten, R., &  Micklos, D. (2015). General and math-specific predictors of sixth-graders’ knowledge of fractions. Cognitive Development, 35, 34–49. doi:10.1016/j.cogdev.2015.02.001

Bailey, D. H., Zhou, X., Zhang Y., Cui, J., Fuchs, L. S., Jordan, N. C., Gersten, R., & Siegler, R. S. (2015) Development of fraction concepts and procedures in U.S. and Chinese children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 129, 68–83. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2014.08.006

Fuchs, L., Fuchs, D., Compton, D., Wehby, J., Schumacher, R., Gersten, R., & Jordan, N. (2015). Inclusion versus specialized intervention for very low-performing students: What does access mean in an era of academic challenge? Exceptional Children, 81(2), 134-157. doi:10.1177/0014402914551743

Vukovic, R. K., Fuchs, L. S., Geary, D. C., Jordan, N. C., Gersten, R., & Siegler, R. S. (2014). Sources of individual differences in children's understanding of fractions. Child Development, 85(4), 1461–1476. doi:10.1111/cdev.12218

Siegler, R. S., Pyke, A.A., Jordan, N., Fuchs, L., & Gersten, R. (2013). Developmental and individual differences in understanding of fractions. Developmental Psychology, 49(10), 1994–2004. doi:10.1037/a0031200


Fuchs, L. S., Schumacher, R. F., Long, J., Namkung, J., Hamlett, C. L., Cirino, P. T., Jordan N. C., Siegler, R., Gersten R., & Changas, P. (2013). Improving at-risk learners' understanding of fractions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105, 683-700. doi: 10.1037/a0032446.


Jordan, N. C., Hansen, N., Fuchs, L., Siegler, R., Gersten, R., & Micklos, D. (2013). Developmental predictors of fractional concepts and procedures. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116(1), 45-58. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2013.02.001


Gersten, R., Clarke, B., Jordan, N., Newman-Gonchar, R., Haymond, K., & Wilkins, C. (2012). Universal screening in mathematics for the primary grades: Beginnings of a research base. Exceptional Children, 78(4), 423–445. doi:10.1177/001440291207800403

Bryant, D. P., Bryant, B. R., Roberts, G., Vaughn, S., Pfannenstiel, K. H., Porterfield, J., & Gersten, R. (2011). Early numeracy intervention program for first-grade students with mathematics difficulties. Exceptional Children, 78(1), 7–23. doi:10.1177/001440291107800101


Gersten, R., Chard, D., Jayanthi, M., Baker, S., Morphy, P., & Flojo, J. (2009). Mathematics instruction for students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis of instructional components. Review of Educational Research, 79(3), 1202–1242. doi:10.3102/0034654309334431


Bryant, D. P., Bryant, B. R., Gersten, R., Scammacca, N., & Chavez, M. (2008). Mathematics intervention for first and second grade students with mathematics difficulties: The effects of tier 2 intervention delivered as booster lessons. Remedial and Special Education, 29(1), 20-32. doi:10.1177/0741932507309712

Bryant, D. P., Bryant, B. R., Gersten, R., Scammacca, N., Funk, C., Winter, A., Shih, M., & Pool, C. (2008). The effects of tier 2 intervention on the mathematics performance of first-grade students who are at risk for mathematics difficulties. Learning Disability Quarterly, 31(2), 47-64. Retrieved from


Gersten, R., & Jordan, N.  (2005).  Early screening and intervention in mathematics difficulties: The need for action. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 291-292.


Gersten, R., Jordan, N., & Flojo, J.  (2005).  Early identification and interventions for
students with mathematics difficulties,
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 293-304.


Baker, S., Gersten, R., Dimino, J. & Griffiths, R. (2004). The sustained use of research-based instructional practice: A case study of peer-assisted learning strategies in mathematics. Remedial and Special Education, 25, 5-24.


Baker, S., Gersten, R., & Lee, D.S. (2002). A synthesis of empirical research on teaching
mathematics to low-achieving students.
Elementary School Journal, 10, 51-73.


Carnine, D. & Gersten, R. (2000). The nature and role of research in improving achievement in mathematics. Journal for Research and Mathematics Education, 31, 138-143.


Gersten, R., & Chard, D. (1999).  Number sense: Rethinking mathematics instruction for students with mathematical disabilities. Journal of Special Education, 33, 19-28.


Gersten, R., & Kelly, B. (1992).  Coaching secondary special education teachers in implementation of an innovative videodisc mathematics curriculum.  Remedial and Special Education, 13, 40-51.


English Language Learners: Best Practice


Richards-Tutor, C., Baker, D. L., Gersten, R., Baker, S. K., & Smith, J. M. (2015). The effectiveness of reading interventions for English learners: A research synthesis. Exceptional Children. Advance online publication. doi:10.1177/0014402915585483


Gage, N., Gersten, R., Sugai, G., & Newman-Gonchar, R. (2013). Disproportionality of English learners with emotional and/or behavioral disorders: A comparative meta-analysis with English learners with learning disabilities. Behavioral Disorders, 38(3), 123-136.


Baker, S., Gersten R., Haager, D., & Dingle, M. (2006).  Teaching practice and the reading growth of first-grade English learners: Validation of an Observation Instrument.  Elementary School Journal, 107(2), 199-221.


Gersten, R., Baker, S., Haager, D., & Graves, A.  (2005).  Exploring the role of
teacher quality in predicting reading outcomes for first grade English learners: An observational study. 
Remedial and Special Education, 26, 197-206.


Graves, A., Gersten, R., & Haager, D., (2004).  Literacy instruction in multiple language
first grade classrooms: Linking student outcomes to observed instructional practice. 
Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 19, 262-272.


Gersten, R., & Geva, E. (2003). Teaching reading to early language learners. Educational Leadership, 60, 44-49.


Gersten, R., & Baker, S. (2000). What we know about effective instructional practices for English-language learners. Exceptional Children, 66,454-470.


Gersten, R. (1999). The changing face of bilingual education.  Educational Leadership, 56, 41-45. (Reprinted in Multicultural Education. Guilford, CT: Dushkin/McGraw-Hill.)


Gersten, R. (1999). Lost opportunities: Challenges confronting four teachers of English-language learners. Elementary School Journal, 100, 37-56.


Jimenez, R. & Gersten, R. (1999). Lessons and dilemmas derived from the literacy instruction of two Latina/o teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 36,265-301.


Gersten, R. (1996). The double demands of teaching English language learners. Educational Leadership, 53, 18-22.


Gersten, R. (1996).  Literacy instruction for language-minority students: The transition years.  Elementary School Journal, 96, 227-244.


Gersten, R., & Woodward, J. (1995).  A longitudinal study of transitional and immersion bilingual education programs in one district.  Elementary School Journal, 95, 223-240.


Gersten, R., & Jimenez, R. (1994). A delicate balance: Enhancing literacy instruction for students of English as a second language.  The Reading Teacher, 47, 438-449.


Gersten, R., & Woodward, J. (1994).  The language minority student and special education: Issues, themes and paradoxes.  Exceptional Children, 60, 310-322. [Reprinted in D. Podell (Ed.) Perspectives: Educating exceptional learners.]


Professional Development


Dimino, J.A., Taylor, M.J., and GErsten, R. (2011). Improving vocabulary instruction through Teacher Study Groups.  Better.  Retried from


Gersten, R., Dimino, J., Jayanthi, M., Kim, J., & Santoro L. (2010). Teacher study group: Impact of the professional development model on reading instruction and student outcomes in first grade classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 47(3), 694–739. doi:10.3102/0002831209361208


Gersten, R., & Dimino, J. A. (2001). The realities of translating research into classroom practice. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 16, 120-130.


Gersten, R., Keating, T., Yovanoff, P., & Harniss, M. K. (2001). Working in special education: Factors that enhance special educators’ intent to stay. Exceptional Children, 67, 549-567.


Gersten, R., Chard, D., & Baker, S. (2000). Factors that enhance sustained use of research-based instructional practices: A historical perspective on relevant research. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33, 445-457.


Gersten, R. (1998). Recent advances in instructional research for students with learning disabilities: An overview.  Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 13, 162-170.


Marks, S. U. & Gersten, R. (1998). Engagement and disengagement between special and general educators: An application of Miles and Huberman's cross-case analysis. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 21, 34-56.


Gersten, R., Vaughn, S., Deshler, D., & Schiller, E. (1997). What we know about using research findings: Implications for improving special education practice. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30, 466-476.


Gersten, R., Morvant, M., & Brengelman, S. (1995). Close to the classroom is close to the bone: Coaching as a means to translate research into classroom practice.  Exceptional Children, 62, 52-66.


Gersten, R., & Dimino, J. (1993). Visions and revisions: A special education perspective on the whole language controversy.  Remedial and Special Education, 14, 5-13.


Gersten, R., Woodward, J., & Morvant, M. (1992). Refining the working knowledge ofexperienced teachers.  Educational Leadership, 49, 34-39.


Gersten, R., Darch, C., Davis, G., & George, N. (1991). Apprenticeship and intensive training of consulting teachers: A naturalistic study.  Exceptional Children, 57, 226-237.


Gersten, R. (1990). Enemies Real and imagined: Implications of Teachers' Thinking about Instruction for collaboration between special and general education. Remedial and Special Education, 11, 50-53.



Research Methodology


Gersten, R., Fuchs, L.S., Compton, D., Coyne, M., Greenwood, C., & Innocenti, M. (2005). Quality indicators for group experimental and quasi-experimental research in special education. Exceptional Children, 71, 149-164.

Gersten, R., Baker, S., Smith-Johnson, J., Flojo, J., & Hagan-Burke, S.  (2004).  A tale of two decades: trends in support for federally funded experimental research in special education. 
Exceptional Children, 70, 323-332.


Gersten, R. (2001). Sorting out the roles of research in the improvement of practice. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice,16, 45-50.


Gersten, R., & Vaughn, S. (2001). Meta-analyses in learning disabilities: Introduction to the special issue. Elementary School Journal, 101, 251-272.


Gersten, R., Baker, S., & Lloyd, J.W. (2000). Designing high quality research in special education: Group experimental design. Journal of Special Education, 34, 2-18.


Gersten, R., & Brengelman, S. (1996).  The quest to translate research into classroom practice: The current knowledge base. Remedial and Special Education, 96, 228-244.




Ward, B., & Gersten, R. (2013). A randomized evaluation of the Safe and Civil Schools model for positive behavioral interventions and supports at elementary schools in a large urban school district. School Psychology Review, 42(3), 317-333.


Brownell, M. T., Bishop, A. G., Gersten, R., Klingner, J. K., Penfield, R., Dimino, J., Haager, D., Menon, S., & Sindelar, P. T. (2009). The role of domain expertise in beginning special education teacher quality. Exceptional Children, 75(4), 391-411.


Gersten, R., & Edyburn, D. (2007). Enhancing the evidence base of special education technology research: Defining special education technology research quality indicators. Journal of Special Education Technology, 22(3), 3-18.


Gersten, R., & Okolo, C. M. (2007). Teaching history- in all its splendid messiness- to students with LD: Contemporary research. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40(2), 98-99. doi:10.1177/00222194070400021001


Harniss, M. K., Caros, J., & Gersten, R. (2007). Impact of the design of U.S. history textbooks on content acquisition and academic engagement of special education students: An experimental investigation. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40(2), 100-110. doi:10.1177/00222194070400020101


Espin, C., Cevasco, J., van den Broek, P., Baker, S., & Gersten, R. (2007). History as narrative: The nature and quality of historical understanding for students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40(2), 174-182. doi:10.1177/00222194070400020801